What Is Fibromyalgia?
Fibromyalgia (fye-bro-my-AL-gee-ah)is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and multiple tender points. "Tender points" refers to tenderness that occurs in precise, localized areas, particularly in the neck, spine, shoulders, and hips. Most patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia describe the feeling as an all over ache, as if the muscles have been pulled or over-worked. Some sufferers experience a twitch in the muscle or even a burn. People with this syndrome may also experience sleep disturbances, morning stiffness, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, and other symptoms.
What Causes Fibromyalgia?
Although the cause of fibromyalgia is unknown, researchers have several theories about causes or triggers of the disorder. Some scientists believe that the syndrome may be caused by an injury or trauma. This injury may affect the central nervous system. Fibromyalgia may be associated with changes in muscle metabolism, such as decreased blood flow, causing fatigue and decreased strength. Others believe the syndrome may be triggered by an infectious agent such as a virus in susceptible people, although no such agent has been identified.
How Is Fibromyalgia Diagnosed?
Fibromyalgia is difficult to diagnose because many of the symptoms mimic those of other disorders. The physician reviews the patient's medical history and makes a diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on a history of chronic widespread pain that persists for more than 3 months. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) has developed criteria for fibromyalgia that physicians can use in diagnosing the disorder. According to ACR criteria, a person is considered to have fibromyalgia if he or she has widespread pain in combination with tenderness in at least 11 of 18 specific tender point sites.
How Is Fibromyalgia Treated?
Treatment of fibromyalgia requires a comprehensive approach. The physician, physical therapist, and patient may all play an active role in the management of fibromyalgia. Studies have shown that aerobic exercise, such as swimming and walking, improves muscle fitness and reduces muscle pain and tenderness. Heat and massage may also give short-term relief. Antidepressant medications may help elevate mood, improve quality of sleep, and relax muscles. Patients with fibromyalgia may benefit from a combination of exercise, medication, physical therapy, and relaxation.
Where Can You Get More Information About Fibromyalgia?
- Fibromyalgia Network
P.O. Box 31750
Tucson, AZ 85751-1750
- Fibromyalgia Partnership (formerly Fibromyalgia Association of Greater Washington)
140 Zinn Way
Linden, VA 22642-5609
(toll free) 866/725-4404
World Wide Web address: http://www.fmpartnership.org
- National Fibromyalgia Awareness Campaign (NFAC)
2415 N. River Trail Road, Suite 200
Orange, CA 92865